Another worrying side effect of some NSAIDs is an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as a heart attack. Research has identified that those NSAIDs that have more of a tendency to block COX-2 compared to COX-1 have an increased risk of thrombosis (blood clotting). Aleve (at dosages up to 1000mg per day) does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of detrimental vascular events, and experts tend to prefer NSAIDs that contain naproxen for this reason. Low-dose ibuprofen (up to 1200mg per day) is considered an alternative to naproxen; however, higher dosages of ibuprofen (up to the recommended maximum of 2400mg/day) are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events. People who have already had a heart attack or stroke must use NSAIDs with caution. One study showed that even one or two doses of ibuprofen or diclofenac (another NSAID) increased the risk of another event. During the 14 weeks of the study, naproxen did not appear to increase this risk. However, NSAIDS should not be used after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and all NSAIDS carry a warning that they can increase the risk of cardiovascular events, so should only be used under a doctor's supervision, particularly in people with a history of heart disease. Reassuringly, the risk of a cardiovascular event such as a heart attack, stroke, or death is extremely small when NSAIDs are prescribed for short periods of time - such as for a musculoskeletal injury - in people at low cardiovascular risk.
Verbal memory scores are frequently used as one measure of higher level cognition . These scores vary in direct proportion to estrogen levels throughout the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. Furthermore, estrogens when administered shortly after natural or surgical menopause prevents decreases in verbal memory. In contrast, estrogens have little effect on verbal memory if first administered years after menopause.  Estrogens also have positive influences on other measures of cognitive function.  However the effect of estrogens on cognition is not uniformly favorable and is dependent on the timing of the dose and the type of cognitive skill being measured.