East Germany decided to upgrade the fortifications in the late 1960s to establish a "modern frontier" that would be far more difficult to cross. Barbed-wire fences were replaced with harder-to-climb expanded metal barriers; directional anti-personnel mines and anti-vehicle ditches blocked the movement of people and vehicles; tripwires and electric signals helped guards to detect escapees; all-weather patrol roads enabled rapid access to any point along the border; and wooden guard towers were replaced with prefabricated concrete towers and observation bunkers. 
In the 19th century, there existed more of these landraces. Some of them became part of the modern German Shepherd breed, while others became extinct in the course of time. The German : pommerscher Hütehund ('Pomeranian sheep-dog') and the German : Hütespitz ('herding spitz ') were also counted among Old German herding dogs. They became extinct in the second half of the 20th century.  The Pomeranian landrace was used to strengthen the Great Pyrenee , the Polski Owczarek Podhalanski , the Kuvasz and similar now-standardised breeds.  It is assumed that the last of the herding spitz landrace, which were mostly white and medium-sized,  became part of the foundation stock of the White Shepherd breed. There may be other surviving landraces, no subject to any attempts to establish breed standards.
On a per capita basis, Austria received more asylum applicants last year than Germany did. That means that criticism from Austria carries much greater weight than that from countries to its east, where opposition is even stronger. In most formerly communist EU member states, the electorates are largely xenophobic and the belief is widespread that refugees would bring epidemics, terrorism and Sharia law into their countries. The influx, many in Eastern Europe believe, is but the advance guard of an expansive Islam seeking to take over the Christian West.