East german spies

The Japanese also launched a submarine attack on an American military base on June 21, 1942. The submarine penetrated and surfaced in the estuary of the Columbia River in Oregon and fired missiles at Fort Stevens. No serious damage or casualties were sustained and the submarine escaped. 

Another Japanese submarine raid on the West coast during World War II included a raid on an oil field, which led to an "invasion scare" in California. 

There were also several successful torpedo attacks of ships on the West coast. There was even an aerial attack, the only aerial bombing of . soil by a foreign enemy, when the Japanese unsuccessfully attempted to start a forest fire in California.

"It wasn't black and white," Ignatius says. "It wasn't the good guys against the bad guys, as we'd felt in the '50s. It was more complicated than that. And espionage — which is always about shades of gray; it's always about deceit and pretending to be something different from what really is — ended up being a kind of, I think, metaphorical sort of novel for the way people felt about the world in the '60s and '70s, when the verities of the early Cold War period kind of hit a wall and we re-examined. And here was John le Carré painting a world in grays very movingly."

The classified documents show that the intelligence agency has several means of accessing the internal data traffic of the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), a cooperative used by more than 8,000 banks worldwide for their international transactions. The NSA specifically targets other institutes on an individual basis. Furthermore, the agency apparently has in-depth knowledge of the internal processes of credit card companies like Visa and MasterCard. What's more, even new, alternative currencies, as well as presumably anonymous means of payment like the Internet currency Bitcoin, rank among the targets of the American spies.

Because the Glienicke Bridge was a restricted border crossing between the Eastern Bloc (namely Potsdam in East Germany) and territory affiliated with the Western powers (namely the American sector of West Berlin), the Americans and Soviets used it for the exchange of captured spies during the Cold War . Reporters began calling it the "Bridge of Spies." [3] When this name was later used as the title for various works, it was often taken to be a pun on "bridge of sighs" a name applied first to the bridge in Venice and then to others. [4] [5] [6]

East german spies

east german spies

Because the Glienicke Bridge was a restricted border crossing between the Eastern Bloc (namely Potsdam in East Germany) and territory affiliated with the Western powers (namely the American sector of West Berlin), the Americans and Soviets used it for the exchange of captured spies during the Cold War . Reporters began calling it the "Bridge of Spies." [3] When this name was later used as the title for various works, it was often taken to be a pun on "bridge of sighs" a name applied first to the bridge in Venice and then to others. [4] [5] [6]

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