Bioelectrical impedance analysis (often referred to as “BIA”) is an accurate method of estimating body cell mass. Instruments for reliable measurements of body composition are commercially available (., BIA Quantum; RJL Systems, Inc., Detroit). These devices can be used quickly in the office ( Figure 1 ) ; a minimum of staff training is required. Bioelectrical impedance analysis provides an estimate of the total body water by measuring changes in a low electrical current passed between electrodes placed on the upper and lower extremities. The sizes of other body compartments (including body cell mass) are then calculated using equations based on assumptions about the relationships between different body compartments and total body water. The validity and reliability of the results depend heavily on several factors, including correct placement of the electrodes, “normality” of body habitus, hydration status and the equations used to estimate body cell mass. 10
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Heavy consumption of the essential amino acid lysine (as indicated in the treatment of cold sores) has allegedly shown false positives in some and was cited by American shotputter C. J. Hunter as the reason for his positive test, though in 2004 he admitted to a federal grand jury that he had injected nandrolone.  A possible cause of incorrect urine test results is the presence of metabolites from other AAS, though modern urinalysis can usually determine the exact steroid used by analyzing the ratio of the two remaining nandrolone metabolites. As a result of the numerous overturned verdicts, the testing procedure was reviewed by UK Sport . On October 5, 2007, three-time Olympic gold medalist for track and field Marion Jones admitted to use of the drug, and was sentenced to six months in jail for lying to a federal grand jury in 2000.