Cochrane steroids bronchiolitis

Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials of at least 4 weeks duration were selected and included persons over the age of 15 years with chronic asthma. Trials which compared inhaled steroids and oral prednisolone or prednisone were considered; the maximum daily dose for inhaled steroids was 2000 mcg and for oral steroids was 60 mg. Data collection & analysis: Two independent reviewers screened 1285 titles and abstracts from the electronic search. From the results of the screened electronic search, bibliography searches and other contacts, the reviewers independently selected 15 trials of which 10 met previously defined inclusion criteria. The two reviewers independently abstracted study characteristics, and outcome measures.

One potential etiologic factor for otitis media with effusion is inflammation, which may be reduced with steroids. Other potential mechanisms of action include directly shrinking tissue around the eustachian tube, improving eustachian tube surfactant secretion, and reducing middle ear effusion viscosity. 3 Oral and topical nasal steroids have been used to treat otitis media with effusion. Use of oral steroids is associated with behavioral changes, increased appetite, weight gain, adrenal suppression, and avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Topical steroids have fewer adverse effects because of minimal systemic absorption. 1

For this 2015 update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 7), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015) and EMBASE (January 1974 to August 2015). We also searched trials registries, however we did not identify any new relevant completed or ongoing trials for inclusion. We combined the MEDLINE search with the Cochrane search strategy for identifying randomised controlled trials ( RCTs ). We adapted the search terms when searching EMBASE .

The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.

我們回顧了7,803位腎移植病人相關資料,我們評估了所有研究的偏差風險,發現許多研究為非盲性,約一半未報告資金的來源,或如何隨機分配研究受試者。

Cochrane steroids bronchiolitis

cochrane steroids bronchiolitis

The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.

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